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Volume 57(1); January 2023
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Reviews
A standardized pathology report for gastric cancer: 2nd edition
Young Soo Park, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Baek-hui Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Dong-Wook Kang, Mi-Jin Gu, Ok Ran Shin, Younghee Choi, Wonae Lee, Hyunki Kim, In Hye Song, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Guhyun Kang, Do Youn Park, So-Young Jin, Joon Mee Kim, Yoon Jung Choi, Hee Kyung Chang, Soomin Ahn, Mee Soo Chang, Song-Hee Han, Yoonjin Kwak, An Na Seo, Sung Hak Lee, Mee-Yon Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):1-27.   Published online January 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.23
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The first edition of ‘A Standardized Pathology Report for Gastric Cancer’ was initiated by the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists and published 17 years ago. Since then, significant advances have been made in the pathologic diagnosis, molecular genetics, and management of gastric cancer (GC). To reflect those changes, a committee for publishing a second edition of the report was formed within the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. This second edition consists of two parts: standard data elements and conditional data elements. The standard data elements contain the basic pathologic findings and items necessary to predict the prognosis of GC patients, and they are adequate for routine surgical pathology service. Other diagnostic and prognostic factors relevant to adjuvant therapy, including molecular biomarkers, are classified as conditional data elements to allow each pathologist to selectively choose items appropriate to the environment in their institution. We trust that the standardized pathology report will be helpful for GC diagnosis and facilitate large-scale multidisciplinary collaborative studies.
Infections and immunity: associations with obesity and related metabolic disorders
Amitabha Ray, Melissa J. L. Bonorden, Rajashree Pandit, Katai J. Nkhata, Anupam Bishayee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):28-42.   Published online January 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.14
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AbstractAbstract PDF
About one-fourth of the global population is either overweight or obese, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and infections. In obesity, both immune cells and adipocytes produce an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may play a significant role in disease progression. In the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, important pathological characteristics such as involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial injury, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release have been shown to be connected with obesity and associated sequelae such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This pathological connection may explain the severity of COVID-19 in patients with metabolic disorders. Many studies have also reported an association between type 2 diabetes and persistent viral infections. Similarly, diabetes favors the growth of various microorganisms including protozoal pathogens as well as opportunistic bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, diabetes is a risk factor for a number of prion-like diseases. There is also an interesting relationship between helminths and type 2 diabetes; helminthiasis may reduce the pro-inflammatory state, but is also associated with type 2 diabetes or even neoplastic processes. Several studies have also documented altered circulating levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes in obesity, which likely modifies vaccine effectiveness. Timely monitoring of inflammatory markers (e.g., C-reactive protein) and energy homeostasis markers (e.g., leptin) could be helpful in preventing many obesity-related diseases.
Single-cell and spatial sequencing application in pathology
Yoon-Seob Kim, Jinyong Choi, Sug Hyung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):43-51.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.12
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Traditionally, diagnostic pathology uses histology representing structural alterations in a disease’s cells and tissues. In many cases, however, it is supplemented by other morphology-based methods such as immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is one of the strategies that may help tackle the heterogeneous cells in a disease, but it does not usually provide histologic information. Spatial sequencing is designed to assign cell types, subtypes, or states according to the mRNA expression on a histological section by RNA sequencing. It can provide mRNA expressions not only of diseased cells, such as cancer cells but also of stromal cells, such as immune cells, fibroblasts, and vascular cells. In this review, we studied current methods of spatial transcriptome sequencing based on their technical backgrounds, tissue preparation, and analytic procedures. With the pathology examples, useful recommendations for pathologists who are just getting started to use spatial sequencing analysis in research are provided here. In addition, leveraging spatial sequencing by integration with scRNA-seq is reviewed. With the advantages of simultaneous histologic and single-cell information, spatial sequencing may give a molecular basis for pathological diagnosis, improve our understanding of diseases, and have potential clinical applications in prognostics and diagnostic pathology.
Perspectives on single-nucleus RNA sequencing in different cell types and tissues
Nayoung Kim, Huiram Kang, Areum Jo, Seung-Ah Yoo, Hae-Ock Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):52-59.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.19
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Single-cell RNA sequencing has become a powerful and essential tool for delineating cellular diversity in normal tissues and alterations in disease states. For certain cell types and conditions, there are difficulties in isolating intact cells for transcriptome profiling due to their fragility, large size, tight interconnections, and other factors. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) is an alternative or complementary approach for cells that are difficult to isolate. In this review, we will provide an overview of the experimental and analysis steps of snRNA-seq to understand the methods and characteristics of general and tissue-specific snRNA-seq data. Knowing the advantages and limitations of snRNA-seq will increase its use and improve the biological interpretation of the data generated using this technique.
Inflammatory bowel disease–associated intestinal fibrosis
Ji Min Park, Jeongseok Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Sung Uk Bae, Hye Won Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):60-66.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.02
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Fibrosis is characterized by a proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive extracellular matrix following chronic inflammation, and this replacement of organ tissue with fibrotic tissue causes a loss of function. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and intestinal fibrosis is common in IBD patients, resulting in several complications that require surgery, such as a stricture or penetration. This review describes the pathogenesis and various factors involved in intestinal fibrosis in IBD, including cytokines, growth factors, epithelial-mesenchymal and endothelial-mesenchymal transitions, and gut microbiota. Furthermore, histopathologic findings and scoring systems used for stenosis in IBD are discussed, and differences in the fibrosis patterns of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are compared. Biomarkers and therapeutic agents targeting intestinal fibrosis are briefly mentioned at the end.
Original Article
The proteomic landscape shows oncologic relevance in cystitis glandularis
Jun Yong Kim, Dohyun Han, Hyeyoon Kim, Minsun Jung, Han Suk Ryu
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):67-74.   Published online December 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.24
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The relationship between cystitis glandularis (CG) and bladder malignancy remains unclear.
Methods
We identified the oncologic significance of CG at the molecular level using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of 10 CG, 12 urothelial carcinoma (UC), and nine normal urothelium (NU) specimens. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified based on an analysis of variance false discovery rate < 0.05, and their functional enrichment was analyzed using a network model, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and Gene Ontology annotation.
Results
We identified 9,890 proteins across all samples and 1,139 DEPs among the three entities. A substantial number of DEPs overlapped in CG/NU, distinct from UC. Interestingly, we found that a subset of DEP clusters (n = 53, 5%) was differentially expressed in NU but similarly between CG and UC. This “UC-like signature” was enriched for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and energy metabolism, growth and DNA repair, transport, motility, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cell survival. Using the top 10 shortlisted DEPs, including SOD2, PRKCD, CYCS, and HCLS1, we identified functional elements related to ROS metabolism, development, and transport using network analysis. The abundance of these four molecules in UC/CG than in NU was consistent with the oncologic functions in CG.
Conclusions
Using a proteomic approach, we identified a predominantly non-neoplastic landscape of CG, which was closer to NU than to UC. We also confirmed a small subset of common DEPs in UC and CG, suggesting that altered ROS metabolism might imply potential cancerous risks in CG.
Case Report
Metallic implant-associated lymphoma: ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with total knee replacement arthroplasty
Jai-Hyang Go
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):75-78.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.30
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Metallic implant-associated lymphomas are extremely rare. Only seven cases have been reported in association with knee joint arthroplasty, and all tumors were large B-cell lymphomas. This report is the first case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma occurring after total knee replacement arthroplasty. An 80‑year‑old female patient was admitted because of right knee pain for 2 years. She had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty 10 years prior. Computed tomography showed an irregular osteolytic lesion in the right lateral femoral condyle, adjacent to the metallic prosthesis. Histologic findings reveal sheets of anaplastic tumor cells that were positive for CD2, CD4, CD5, CD43, and CD30 but negative for CD3, CD20, CD15, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization was negative. Analysis of T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangement studies using BIOMED-2–based multiplex polymerase chain reaction confirmed monoclonal T cell proliferation. The woman was finally diagnosed with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Newsletter
What’s new in neuromuscular pathology 2022: myopathy updates and gene therapies
Chunyu Cai
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):79-80.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.14
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This compilation of new changes in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and nerve disease is extracted from the latest publications from the European Neuromuscular Centre International workshops, FDA.gov and clinicaltrials.gov.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine