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Volume 56(5); September 2022
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Original Articles
Inflammation and tissue remodeling contribute to fibrogenesis in stricturing Crohn’s disease: image processing and analysis study
Mustafa Erdem Arslan, Rupinder Brar, Lianna Goetz, Dipti Karamchandani, Michael W. Mikula, Kyle Hodge, Hua Li, Sangtae Ahn, Hwajeong Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):239-248.   Published online July 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.05.18
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Inflammation and structural remodeling may contribute to fibrogenesis in Crohn’s disease (CD). We quantified the immunoexpression of calretinin, CD34, and calprotectin as a surrogate for mucosal innervation, telocytes (interstitial cells playing a role in networking), and inflammation, respectively, and correlated them with bowel alterations in stricturing CD.
Methods
Primary resection specimens for ileal CD (n = 44, 31 stricturing CD, 13 inflammatory CD) were identified. Left-sided ulcerative colitis and trauma cases were used as controls. Proximal and distal margin and middle (diseased) sections were stained for calretinin, CD34, and calprotectin. Microscopic images were captured from the mucosa (calretinin), submucosa (calprotectin), and myenteric plexus (CD34), and the immunostaining was quantified using image processing and analysis. Bowel thickness at the corresponding sections were measured and correlated with the amount of immunoexpression.
Results
A total of 2,037 images were analyzed. In stricturing CD, submucosal alteration/thickening at the stricture site correlated with calprotectin staining and inversely correlated with calretinin staining at the proximal margin. Muscularis propria alteration/thickening at the stricture site correlated with mucosal calretinin staining at the proximal margin. Submucosal alteration/thickening at the proximal margin correlated with calretinin and CD34 staining at the proximal margin and inversely correlated with CD34 staining at the stricture site. Calretinin immunostaining at the distal margin was significantly higher in stricturing CD than the controls.
Conclusions
Inflammation and tissue remodeling appear to contribute to fibrogenesis in stricturing CD. Increased mucosal calretinin immunostaining distal to the diseased segment could be helpful in diagnosing CD in the right clinical context.
Landscape of EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma: a single institute experience with comparison of PANAMutyper testing and targeted next-generation sequencing
Jeonghyo Lee, Yeon Bi Han, Hyun Jung Kwon, Song Kook Lee, Hyojin Kim, Jin-Haeng Chung
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):249-259.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.06.11
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are predictive biomarkers for response to EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Here, we characterized the clinicopathologic features associated with EGFR mutations via peptide nucleic acid clamping-assisted fluorescence melting curve analysis (PANAMutyper) and evaluated the feasibility of targeted deep sequencing for detecting the mutations.
Methods
We examined EGFR mutations in exons 18 through 21 for 2,088 LUADs from July 2017 to April 2020 using PANAMutyper. Of these, we performed targeted deep sequencing in 73 patients and evaluated EGFR-mutation status and TKI clinical response.
Results
EGFR mutation was identified in 55.7% of LUADs by PANAMutyper, with mutation rates higher in females (69.3%) and never smokers (67.1%) and highest in the age range of 50 to 59 years (64.9%). For the 73 patients evaluated using both methods, next-generation sequencing (NGS) identified EGFR mutation–positive results in 14 of 61 patients (23.0%) who were EGFR-negative according to PANAMutyper testing. Of the 10 patients reportedly harboring a sensitizing mutation according to NGS, seven received TKI treatment, with all showing partial response or stable disease. In the 12 PANAMutyper-positive cases, NGS identified two additional mutations in exon 18, whereas a discordant negative result was observed in two cases.
Conclusions
Although PANAMutyper identified high frequencies of EGFR mutations, targeted deep sequencing revealed additional uncommon EGFR mutations. These findings suggested that appropriate use of NGS may benefit LUAD patients with otherwise negative screening test results.
Cytopathologic features of human papillomavirus–independent, gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma
Min-Kyung Yeo, Go Eun Bae, Dong-Hyun Kim, In-Ock Seong, Kwang-Sun Suh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):260-269.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.05
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (GEA) is unrelated to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is clinically aggressive compared with HPV-associated usual-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (UEA). The cytological diagnosis falls short of a definitive diagnosis of GEA and is often categorized as atypical glandular cells (AGCs). To improve cytologic recognition, cytological findings of HPV-independent GEA were analyzed and the results compared with HPV-associated UEA.
Methods
Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from eight patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of GEA and 12 control cases of UEA were reviewed. All slides were conventionally prepared and/or liquid-based prepared (ThinPrep) and stained following the Pap method. A mucinous background, architectural, nuclear, and cytoplasmic features were analyzed and compared with UEA.
Results
Preoperative cytologic diagnoses of the eight GEA cases were AGCs, favor neoplastic in three cases, adenocarcinoma in situ in one case, and adenocarcinoma in four cases. Cytologically, monolayered honeycomb-like sheets (p = .002) of atypical endocervical cells with vacuolar granular cytoplasm (p = .001) were extensive in GEA, and three-dimensional clusters (p = .010) were extensive in UEA. Although the differences were not statistically significant, background mucin (p = .058), vesicular nuclei (p = .057), and golden-brown intracytoplasmic mucin (p = .089) were also discriminatory findings for GEA versus UEA.
Conclusions
Although GEA is difficult to diagnose on cytologic screening, GEA can be recognized based on cytologic features of monolayered honeycomb sheets of atypical endocervical cells with abundant vacuolar cytoplasm and some golden-brown intracytoplasmic mucin. UEA cases are characterized by three-dimensional clusters.
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) in the differential diagnosis of osteogenic and non-osteogenic bone and soft tissue tumors
Sharon Milton, Anne Jennifer Prabhu, V. T. K. Titus, Rikki John, Selvamani Backianathan, Vrisha Madhuri
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):270-280.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.11
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OSA) depends on clinicopathological and radiological correlation. A biopsy is considered the gold standard for OSA diagnosis. However, since OSA is a great histological mimicker, diagnostic challenges exist. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) can serve as an adjunct for the histological diagnosis of OSA. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) was recently described as a reliable adjunct immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of OSA.
Methods
We investigated the IHC expression of SATB2 in 95 OSA and 100 non-osteogenic bone and soft tissue tumors using a monoclonal antibody (clone EPNCIR30A). The diagnostic utility of SATB2 and correlation with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed.
Results
SATB2 IHC was positive in 88 out of 95 cases (92.6%) of OSA and 50 out of 100 cases (50.0%) of primary non-osteogenic bone and soft tissue tumors. Of the 59 bone tumors, 37 cases (62.7%) were positive for SATB2, and of the 41 soft tissue tumors, 13 cases (31.7%) were positive for SATB2. The sensitivity of SATB2 as a diagnostic test was 92.6%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 63.8%, and negative predictive value 87.7%.
Conclusions
Although SATB2 is a useful diagnostic marker for OSA, other clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features should be considered for the interpretation of SATB2.
Prognostic significance of BLK expression in R-CHOP treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Soyeon Choi, Yoo Jin Lee, Yunsuk Choi, Misung Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Sukjoong Oh, Seoung Wan Chae, Hee Jeong Cha, Jae-Cheol Jo
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):281-288.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.26
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of B-cell lymphocyte kinase (BLK) expression for survival outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with R-CHOP.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 89 patients from two tertiary referral hospitals. The expression of BLK, SYK, and CDK1 were evaluated in a semiquantitative method using an H-score, and the proportions of BCL2 and C-MYC were evaluated.
Results
A total of 89 patients received R-CHOP chemotherapy as a first-line chemotherapy. The expression rates of BLK in tumor cells was 39.2% (n = 34). BLK expression status was not significantly associated with clinical variables; however, BLK expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with the expression of both C-MYC and BCL2 (p = .003). With a median follow-up of 60.4 months, patients with BLK expression had significantly lower 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival rates (49.8% and 60.9%, respectively) than patients without BLK expression (77.3% and 86.7%, respectively). In multivariate analysis for PFS, BLK positivity was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 2.208; p = .040).
Conclusions
Here, we describe the clinicopathological features and survival outcome according to expression of BLK in DLBCL. Approximately 39% of DLBCL patients showed BLK positivity, which was associated as a predictive marker for poor prognosis in patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy.
Evaluation of the characteristics of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections identified using the BD Onclarity HPV assay and comparison with those of single HPV infection
Jinhee Kim, Moonsik Kim, Ji Young Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):289-293.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.02
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer and associated precursor lesions. Multiple HPV genotype infections have been reported. However, their clinicopathological characteristics still remain elusive.
Methods
For this study, 814 consecutive patients who had undergone colposcopy and HPV genotyping test using BD Onclarity HPV assay were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathological parameters of multiple HPV infections were compared with those of single HPV infection.
Results
Multiple HPV infections were found in 110 out of 814 cases (13.5%). Multiple HPV infections were associated with a significantly higher incidence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) compared with single HPV infection. Other high-risk HPV genotypes, in addition to HPV 16, were found more frequently in the multiple HPV infections group; these included HPV 51, 52, 33/58, 56/59/66, and 35/39/68. No specific coinfection pattern was not identified. Additionally, the number of HPV genotypes in multiple HPV infections was not associated with the progression to HSIL or squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusions
Multiple HPV infections have distinct clinicopathological characteristics (compared with single HPV infection). As their biological behavior is uncertain, close and frequent follow-up is warranted.
Case Studies
Heterotopic mesenteric ossification: a report of two cases
Hisham F. Bahmad, Olga Lopez, Tyson Sutherland, Marisa Vinas, Kfir Ben-David, Lydia Howard, Robert Poppiti, Sarah Alghamdi
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):294-300.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.23
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Heterotopic mesenteric ossification (HMO) is abnormal bone formation in tissues which usually do not undergo ossification. There are approximately 75 cases reported worldwide. We present two cases of HMO. The first case is that of a 39-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and a computerized tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an apple core lesion resulting in small bowel obstruction. The second case is that of a 36-year-old woman who presented 2 months after undergoing robotic gastric sleeve resection complaining of weakness and emesis. An esophagogram revealed kinking at the distal esophagus. Surgical resection was performed in both, yielding the diagnosis of HMO. There are various theories as to the pathophysiology of HMO, but no clearly defined mechanism has been established. Management should be conservative whenever possible to prevent further ossification with subsequent surgical intervention.
Papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas coexisting in the same lobe, first suspected based on fine-needle aspiration cytology: a case report
Hyun Hee Koh, Young Lyun Oh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):301-308.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.03
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Because different types of thyroid malignancies have distinct embryological origins, coexisting tumors are rarely observed. We describe a coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) first suspected by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 57-year-old female presented with an irregular mass in the right thyroid lobe. The cytopathologic findings of fine-needle aspiration showed two components: a papillary-like arrangement consisting of cells with pale enlarged nuclei indicative of PTC and loose clusters comprised of oval cells with granular chromatin indicative of MTC. The diagnosis of a coexisting PTC and MTC was initially confirmed by calcitonin immunocytochemistry and later after total thyroidectomy. Although some surgical case reports of PTC and MTC coexisting in either the same or different lobes have been documented, a case suspected by FNAC before the surgery has rarely been reported. Because appropriate treatment and prognosis of PTC and MTC are different, cytopathologists should be aware of this rare entity.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine