Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Most cited

Page Path
HOME > Articles and issues > Most cited
86 Most cited
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles

From articles published in Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine during the past two years (2020 ~ ).

Reviews
HER2 status in breast cancer: changes in guidelines and complicating factors for interpretation
Soomin Ahn, Ji Won Woo, Kyoungyul Lee, So Yeon Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):34-44.   Published online November 6, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.11.03
  • 12,943 View
  • 790 Download
  • 34 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein overexpression and/or HER2 gene amplification is found in about 20% of invasive breast cancers. It is a sole predictive marker for treatment benefits from HER2 targeted therapy and thus, HER2 testing is a routine practice for newly diagnosed breast cancer in pathology. Currently, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used for a screening test, and in situ hybridization is used as a confirmation test for HER2 IHC equivocal cases. Since the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines on HER2 testing was first released in 2007, it has been updated to provide clear instructions for HER2 testing and accurate determination of HER2 status in breast cancer. During HER2 interpretation, some pitfalls such as intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity and increase in chromosome enumeration probe 17 signals may lead to inaccurate assessment of HER2 status. Moreover, HER2 status can be altered after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or during metastatic progression, due to biologic or methodologic issues. This review addresses recent updates of ASCO/CAP guidelines and factors complicating in the interpretation of HER2 status in breast cancers.
Introduction to digital pathology and computer-aided pathology
Soojeong Nam, Yosep Chong, Chan Kwon Jung, Tae-Yeong Kwak, Ji Youl Lee, Jihwan Park, Mi Jung Rho, Heounjeong Go
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(2):125-134.   Published online February 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.12.31
  • 11,233 View
  • 490 Download
  • 30 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Digital pathology (DP) is no longer an unfamiliar term for pathologists, but it is still difficult for many pathologists to understand the engineering and mathematics concepts involved in DP. Computer-aided pathology (CAP) aids pathologists in diagnosis. However, some consider CAP a threat to the existence of pathologists and are skeptical of its clinical utility. Implementation of DP is very burdensome for pathologists because technical factors, impact on workflow, and information technology infrastructure must be considered. In this paper, various terms related to DP and computer-aided pathologic diagnosis are defined, current applications of DP are discussed, and various issues related to implementation of DP are outlined. The development of computer-aided pathologic diagnostic tools and their limitations are also discussed.
Tumor immune response and immunotherapy in gastric cancer
Yoonjin Kwak, An Na Seo, Hee Eun Lee, Hye Seung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):20-33.   Published online November 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.08
  • 10,644 View
  • 669 Download
  • 29 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Remarkable developments in immuno-oncology have changed the landscape of gastric cancer (GC) treatment. Because immunotherapy intervenes with tumor immune response rather than directly targeting tumor cells, it is important to develop a greater understanding of tumor immunity. This review paper summarizes the tumor immune reaction and immune escape mechanisms while focusing on the role of T cells and their co-inhibitory signals, such as the immune checkpoint molecules programmed death-1 and programmed deathligand 1 (PD-L1). This paper also describes past clinical trials of immunotherapy for patients with GC and details their clinical implications. Strong predictive markers are essential to improve response to immunotherapy. Microsatellite instability, Epstein-Barr virus, PD-L1 expression, and tumor mutational burden are now regarded as potent predictive markers for immunotherapy in patients with GC. Novel immunotherapy and combination therapy targeting new immune checkpoint molecules such as lymphocyte-activation gene 3, T cell immunoglobulin, and mucin domain containing-3, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase have been suggested, and trials are ongoing to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Immunotherapy is an important treatment option for patients with GC and has great potential for improving patient outcome, and further research in immuno-oncology should be carried out.
2019 Practice guidelines for thyroid core needle biopsy: a report of the Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association
Chan Kwon Jung, Jung Hwan Baek, Dong Gyu Na, Young Lyun Oh, Ka Hee Yi, Ho-Cheol Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):64-86.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.12.04
  • 15,698 View
  • 680 Download
  • 18 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has been increasingly used for the pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Since the Korean Society of the Thyroid Radiology published the ‘Consensus Statement and Recommendations for Thyroid CNB’ in 2017 and the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid CNB Study Group published ‘Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy’ in 2015, advances have occurred rapidly not only in the management guidelines for thyroid nodules but also in the diagnostic terminology and classification schemes. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) reviewed publications on thyroid CNB from 1995 to September 2019 and updated the recommendations and statements for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules using CNB. Recommendations for the resolution of clinical controversies regarding the use of CNB were based on expert opinion. These practical guidelines include recommendations and statements regarding indications for CNB, patient preparation, CNB technique, biopsy-related complications, biopsy specimen preparation and processing, and pathology interpretation and reporting of thyroid CNB.
Molecular characteristics of meningiomas
Young Suk Lee, Youn Soo Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):45-63.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.11.05
  • 10,863 View
  • 464 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Meningioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. The grading of meningioma is based on World Health Organization criteria, which rely on histopathological features alone. This grading system is unable to conclusively predict the clinical behavior of these tumors (i.e., recurrence or prognosis in benign or atypical grades). Advances in molecular techniques over the last decade that include genomic and epigenomic data associated with meningiomas have been used to identify genetic biomarkers that can predict tumor behavior. This review summarizes the molecular characteristics of meningioma using genetic and epigenetic biomarkers. Molecular alterations that can predict meningioma behavior may be integrated into the upcoming World Health Organization grading system.
Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer, 2nd Edition
Baek-hui Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Hee Jin Chang, Dong Wook Kang, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Mo Bae, An Na Seo, Ho Sung Park, Yun Kyung Kang, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Mee Yon Cho, In-Gu Do, Hye Seung Lee, Hee Kyung Chang, Do Youn Park, Hyo Jeong Kang, Jin Hee Sohn, Mee Soo Chang, Eun Sun Jung, So-Young Jin, Eunsil Yu, Hye Seung Han, Youn Wha Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):1-19.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.09.28
  • 13,812 View
  • 913 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The first edition of the ‘Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer,’ which was developed by the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group (GIP) of the Korean Society of Pathologists, was published 13 years ago. Meanwhile, there have been many changes in the pathologic diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), pathologic findings included in the pathology report, and immunohistochemical and molecular pathology required for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. In order to reflect these changes, we (GIP) decided to make the second edition of the report. The purpose of this standardized pathology report is to provide a practical protocol for Korean pathologists, which could help diagnose and treat CRC patients. This report consists of “standard data elements” and “conditional data elements.” Basic pathologic findings and parts necessary for prognostication of CRC patients are classified as “standard data elements,” while other prognostic factors and factors related to adjuvant therapy are classified as “conditional data elements” so that each institution could select the contents according to the characteristics of the institution. The Korean version is also provided separately so that Korean pathologists can easily understand and use this report. We hope that this report will be helpful in the daily practice of CRC diagnosis.
Original Articles
Highly prevalent BRAF V600E and low-frequency TERT promoter mutations underlie papillary thyroid carcinoma in Koreans
Sue Youn Kim, Taeeun Kim, Kwangsoon Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Jeong Soo Kim, Chan Kwon Jung
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(4):310-317.   Published online June 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.05.12
  • 4,726 View
  • 141 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The presence of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations have been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). The frequency of TERT promoter mutations varies widely depending on the population and the nature of the study.
Methods
Data were prospectively collected in 724 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy for PTC from 2018 to 2019. Molecular testing for BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations was performed in all cases.
Results
TERT promoter alterations in two hotspots (C228T and C250T) and C216T were found in 16 (2.2%) and 4 (0.6%) of all PTCs, respectively. The hotspot mutations were significantly associated with older age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, higher pathologic T category, lateral lymph node metastasis, and higher American Thyroid Association recurrence risk. The patients with C216T variant were younger and had a lower American Thyroid Association recurrence risk than those with hotspot mutations. Concurrent BRAF V600E was found in 19 of 20 cases with TERT promoter mutations. Of 518 microcarcinomas measuring ≤1.0 cm in size, hotspot mutations and C216T variants were detected in five (1.0%) and three (0.6%) cases, respectively.
Conclusions
Our study indicates a low frequency of TERT promoter mutations in Korean patients with PTC and supports previous findings that TERT promoter mutations are more common in older patients with unfavorable clinicopathologic features and BRAF V600E. TERT promoter mutations in patients with microcarcinoma are uncommon and may have a limited role in risk stratification. The C216T variant seems to have no clinicopathologic effect on PTC.
Prediction of TP53 mutations by p53 immunohistochemistry and their prognostic significance in gastric cancer
Hye Jung Hwang, Soo Kyung Nam, Hyunjin Park, Yujun Park, Jiwon Koh, Hee Young Na, Yoonjin Kwak, Woo Ho Kim, Hye Seung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(5):378-386.   Published online July 1, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.06.01
  • 4,174 View
  • 195 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Recently, molecular classifications of gastric cancer (GC) have been proposed that include TP53 mutations and their functional activity. We aimed to demonstrate the correlation between p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and TP53 mutations as well as their clinicopathological significance in GC.
Methods
Deep targeted sequencing was performed using surgical or biopsy specimens from 120 patients with GC. IHC for p53 was performed and interpreted as strong, weak, or negative expression. In 18 cases (15.0%) with discrepant TP53 mutation and p53 IHC results, p53 IHC was repeated.
Results
Strong expression of p53 was associated with TP53 missense mutations, negative expression with other types of mutations, and weak expression with wild-type TP53 (p<.001). The sensitivity for each category was 90.9%, 79.0%, and 80.9%, and the specificity was 95.4%, 88.1%, and 92.3%, respectively. The TNM stage at initial diagnosis exhibited a significant correlation with both TP53 mutation type (p=.004) and p53 expression status (p=.029). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for 109 stage II and III GC cases showed that patients with TP53 missense mutations had worse overall survival than those in the wild-type and other mutation groups (p=.028). Strong expression of p53 was also associated with worse overall survival in comparison to negative and weak expression (p=.035).
Conclusions
Results of IHC of the p53 protein may be used as a simple surrogate marker of TP53 mutations. However, negative expression of p53 and other types of mutations of TP53 should be carefully interpreted because of its lower sensitivity and different prognostic implications.
Reviews
Evolving pathologic concepts of serrated lesions of the colorectum
Jung Ho Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(4):276-289.   Published online June 26, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.04.15
  • 7,221 View
  • 520 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Here, we provide an up-to-date review of the histopathology and molecular pathology of serrated colorectal lesions. First, we introduce the updated contents of the 2019 World Health Organization classification for serrated lesions. The sessile serrated lesion (SSL) is a new diagnostic terminology that replaces sessile serrated adenoma and sessile serrated polyp. The diagnostic criteria for SSL were revised to require only one unequivocal distorted serrated crypt, which is sufficient for diagnosis. Unclassified serrated adenomas have been included as a new category of serrated lesions. Second, we review ongoing issues concerning the morphology of serrated lesions. Minor morphologic variants with distinct molecular features were recently defined, including serrated tubulovillous adenoma, mucin-rich variant of traditional serrated adenoma (TSA), and superficially serrated adenoma. In addition to intestinal dysplasia and serrated dysplasia, minimal deviation dysplasia and not otherwise specified dysplasia were newly suggested as dysplasia subtypes of SSLs. Third, we summarize the molecular features of serrated lesions. The critical determinant of CpG island methylation development in SSLs is patient age. Interestingly, there may be ethnic differences in BRAF/KRAS mutation frequencies in SSLs. The molecular pathogenesis of TSAs is divided into KRAS and BRAF mutation pathways. SSLs with MLH1 methylation can progress into favorable prognostic microsatellite instability-positive (MSI+)/CpG island methylator phenotype-positive (CIMP+) carcinomas, whereas MLH1-unmethylated SSLs and BRAF-mutated TSAs can be precursors of poor-prognostic MSI−/CIMP+ carcinomas. Finally, based on our recent data, we propose an algorithm for stratifying risk subgroups of non-dysplastic SSLs.
Current status and future perspectives of liquid biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer
Sunhee Chang, Jae Young Hur, Yoon-La Choi, Chang Hun Lee, Wan Seop Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):204-212.   Published online April 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.02.27
  • 5,635 View
  • 248 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
With advances in target therapy, molecular analysis of tumors is routinely required for treatment decisions in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Liquid biopsy refers to the sampling and analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) in various body fluids, primarily blood. Because the technique is minimally invasive, liquid biopsies are the future in cancer management. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ctDNA tests have been performed in routine clinical practice in advanced NSCLC patients to guide tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In the near future, liquid biopsy will be a crucial prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic method in NSCLC. Here we present the current status and future perspectives of liquid biopsy in NSCLC.
Original Articles
Analysis of the molecular subtypes of preoperative core needle biopsy and surgical specimens in invasive breast cancer
Ye Sul Jeong, Jun Kang, Jieun Lee, Tae-Kyung Yoo, Sung Hun Kim, Ahwon Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):87-94.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.14
  • 4,472 View
  • 172 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Accurate molecular classification of breast core needle biopsy (CNB) tissue is important for determining neoadjuvant systemic therapies for invasive breast cancer. The researchers aimed to evaluate the concordance rate (CR) of molecular subtypes between CNBs and surgical specimens.
Methods
This study was conducted with invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after CNB at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital between December 2014 and December 2017. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. ER and PR were evaluated by Allred score (0–8). HER2 was graded from 0 to +3, and all 2+ cases were reflex tested with silver in situ hybridization. The labeling index of Ki67 was counted by either manual scoring or digital image analysis. Molecular subtypes were classified using the above surrogate markers.
Results
In total, 629 patients were evaluated. The CRs of ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 were 96.5% (kappa, 0.883; p<.001), 93.0% (kappa, 0.824; p<.001), 99.7% (kappa, 0.988; p<.001), and 78.7% (kappa, 0.577; p<.001), respectively. Digital image analysis of Ki67 in CNB showed better concordance with Ki67 in surgical specimens (CR, 82.3%; kappa, 0.639 for digital image analysis vs. CR, 76.2%; kappa, 0.534 for manual counting). The CRs of luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple negative types were 89.0%, 70.0%, 82.9%, and 77.2%, respectively.
Conclusions
CNB was reasonably accurate for determining ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, and molecular subtypes. Using digital image analysis for Ki67 in CNB produced more accurate molecular classifications.
Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and its genotype distribution in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
Yuil Kim, Young-Hoon Joo, Min-Sik Kim, Youn Soo Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(5):411-418.   Published online July 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.06.22
  • 4,896 View
  • 125 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in a subset of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). For oropharyngeal SCCs, HR HPV positivity is known to be associated with good prognosis, and a separate staging system for HPV-associated carcinomas using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate test has been adopted in the 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. We examined the HR HPV status and the genotype distribution in five HN subsites.
Methods
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were used for p16 IHC and DNA extraction. HPV DNA detection and genotyping were done employing either a DNA chip-based or real-time polymerase chain reaction–based method.
Results
During 2011–2019, a total of 466 SCCs were tested for HPV DNA with 34.1% positivity for HR HPV. Among HN subsites, the oropharynx showed the highest HR HPV prevalence (149/205, 75.1%), followed by the sinonasal tract (3/14, 21.4%), larynx (5/43, 11.6%), hypopharynx (1/38, 2.6%), and oral cavity (1/166, 0.6%). The most common HPV genotype was HPV16 (84.3%) followed by HPV35 (6.9%) and HPV33 (4.4%). Compared with HR HPV status, the sensitivity and specificity of p16 IHC were 98.6% and 94.3% for the oropharynx, and 99.2% and 93.8% for the tonsil, respectively.
Conclusions
Using a Korean dataset, we confirmed that HR HPV is most frequently detected in oropharyngeal SCCs. p16 positivity showed a good concordance with HR HPV DNA for oropharyngeal and especially tonsillar carcinomas. The use of p16 IHC may further be extended to predict HR HPV positivity in sinonasal tract SCCs.
Programmed death-ligand 1 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters in gallbladder cancer
Ji Hye Kim, Kyungbin Kim, Misung Kim, Young Min Kim, Jae Hee Suh, Hee Jeong Cha, Hye Jeong Choi
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(2):154-164.   Published online February 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.11.13
  • 5,612 View
  • 143 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Immunomodulatory therapies targeting the interaction between programmed cell death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have become increasingly important in anticancer treatment. Previous research on the subject of this immune response has established an association with tumor aggressiveness and a poor prognosis in certain cancers. Currently, scant information is available on the relationship between PD-L1 expression and gallbladder cancer (GBC).
Methods
We investigated the expression of PD-L1 in 101 primary GBC cases to determine the potential association with prognostic impact. PD-L1 expression was immunohistochemically assessed using a single PD-L1 antibody (clone SP263). Correlations with clinicopathological parameters, overall survival (OS), or progression- free survival (PFS) were analyzed.
Results
PD-L1 expression in tumor cells at cutoff levels of 1%, 10%, and 50% was present in 18.8%, 13.8%, and 7.9% of cases. Our study showed that positive PD-L1 expression at any cutoff was significantly correlated with poorly differentiated histologic grade and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (p < .05). PD-L1 expression at cutoff levels of 10% and 50% was significantly positive in patients with perineural invasion, higher T categories, and higher pathologic stages (p < .05). Additionally, there was a significant association noted between PD-L1 expression at a cutoff level of 50% and worse OS or PFS (p = .049 for OS, p = .028 for PFS). Other poor prognostic factors included histologic grade, T category, N category, pathologic stage, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, growth pattern, and margin of resection (p < .05).
Conclusions
The expression of PD-L1 in GBC varies according to cutoff level but is valuably associated with poor prognostic parameters and survival. Our study indicates that the overexpression of PD-L1 in GBC had a negative prognostic impact.
Clinicopathologic characteristics of HER2-positive pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast
Yunjeong Jang, Hera Jung, Han-Na Kim, Youjeong Seo, Emad Alsharif, Seok Jin Nam, Seok Won Kim, Jeong Eon Lee, Yeon Hee Park, Eun Yoon Cho, Soo Youn Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):95-102.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.24
  • 5,145 View
  • 227 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) is a rare type of breast cancer, estimated to represent 2% of invasive breast cancer. PMC is typically positive for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The clinicopathologic characteristics of HER2-positive PMC have not been investigated.
Methods
Pathology archives were searched for PMC diagnosed from January 1999 to April 2018. Clinicopathologic data and microscopic findings were reviewed and compared between HER2-positive PMC and HER2-negative PMC. We also analyzed the differences in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival according to clinicopathologic parameters including HER2 status in overall PMC cases.
Results
There were 21 HER2-positive cases (4.8%) in 438 PMCs. The average tumor size of HER2-positive PMC was 32.21 mm (± 26.55). Lymph node metastasis was present in seven cases. Compared to HER2-negative PMC, HER2-positive PMC presented with a more advanced T category (p < .001), more frequent lymph node metastasis (p = .009), and a higher nuclear and histologic grade (p < .001). Microscopically, signet ring cells were frequently observed in HER2-positive PMC (p < .001), whereas a micropapillary pattern was more frequent in HER2-negative PMC (p = .012). HER2-positive PMC was more frequently negative for ER (33.3% vs. 1.2%) and PR (28.6% vs. 7.2%) than HER2-negative PMC and showed a high Ki-67 labeling index. During follow-up, distant metastasis and recurrence developed in three HER2-positive PMC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that only HER2-positivity and lymph node status were significantly associated with DFS.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that HER2-positive PMC is a more aggressive subgroup of PMC. HER2 positivity should be considered for adequate management of PMC.
Review
Clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer in Asian patients
Eun-Kyu Kim, So Yeon Park, Sung-Won Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(4):265-275.   Published online May 14, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.04.07
  • 4,582 View
  • 184 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BRCA1/2 germline mutations account for the majority of hereditary breast cancers. Since the identification of the BRCA genes, several attempts have been made to define the clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer in comparison with sporadic breast cancer. Asians constitute 60% of the world population, and although the incidence of breast cancer in Asia remains low compared to the West, breast cancer is the most prevalent female cancer in the region. The epidemiological aspects of breast cancer are different between Asians and Caucasians. Asian patients present with breast cancer at a younger age than Western patients. The contributions of BRCA1/2 mutations to breast cancer incidence are expected to differ between Asians and Caucasians, and the different genetic backgrounds among races are likely to influence the breast cancer phenotypes. However, most large-scale studies on the clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer have been on Western patients, while studies on Asian populations were small and sporadic. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical and pathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer, incorporating findings on Asian patients.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine