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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2021 during the last three month.

Newsletter
What’s new in breast pathology 2022: WHO 5th edition and biomarker updates
Kristen Muller, Julie M. Jorns, Gary Tozbikian
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(3):170-171.   Published online May 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.04.25
  • 4,278 View
  • 334 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The 5th edition WHO Classification of Breast Tumours (2019) has introduced changes to our practices. Highlights are presented below, with a focus on modifications to morphological subtype categorization. In addition, we summarize important updates to ER and PR testing made in the 2020 ASCO/CAP guidelines, and briefly discuss PD-L1 and Ki-67 testing in breast cancer.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Zhijie Wang, Yichuan Wang, Peng Gao, Jin Ding
    Cancer Letters.2023; 555: 216038.     CrossRef
Original Article
Current status of cytopathology practice in Korea: impact of the coronavirus pandemic on cytopathology practice
Soon Auck Hong, Haeyoen Jung, Sung Sun Kim, Min-Sun Jin, Jung-Soo Pyo, Ji Yun Jeong, Younghee Choi, Gyungyub Gong, Yosep Chong
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):361-369.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.21
  • 1,009 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The Continuous Quality Improvement program for cytopathology in 2020 was completed during the coronavirus pandemic. In this study, we report the result of the quality improvement program.
Methods
Data related to cytopathology practice from each institute were collected and processed at the web-based portal. The proficiency test was conducted using glass slides and whole-slide images (WSIs). Evaluation of the adequacy of gynecology (GYN) slides from each institution and submission of case glass slides and WSIs for the next quality improvement program were performed.
Results
A total of 214 institutions participated in the annual cytopathology survey in 2020. The number of entire cytopathology specimens was 8,220,650, a reduction of 19.0% from the 10,111,755 specimens evaluated in 2019. Notably, the number of respiratory cytopathology specimens, including sputum and bronchial washing/ brushing significantly decreased by 86.9% from 2019, which could be attributed to the global pandemic of coronavirus disease. The ratio of cases with atypical squamous cells to squamous intraepithelial lesions was 4.10. All participating institutions passed the proficiency test and the evaluation of adequacy of GYN slides.
Conclusions
Through the Continuous Quality Improvement program, the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, manifesting with a reduction in the number of cytologic examinations, especially in respiratory-related specimen has been identified. The Continuous Quality Improvement Program of the Korean Society for Cytopathology can serve as the gold standard to evaluate the current status of cytopathology practice in Korea.
Review
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features: its updated diagnostic criteria, preoperative cytologic diagnoses and impact on the risk of malignancy
Hee Young Na, So Yeon Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):319-325.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.29
  • 1,028 View
  • 90 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Due to the extremely indolent behavior, a subset of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas has been classified as “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)” since 2016 and is no longer considered carcinoma. Since the introduction of this new terminology, changes and refinements have been made in diagnostic criteria. Initially, the incidence of NIFTP was estimated substantial. However, the reported incidence of NIFTP varies greatly among studies and regions, with higher incidence in North American and European countries than in Asian countries. Thus, the changes in the risk of malignancy (ROM) in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) differ inevitably among regions. Because more conservative surgery is recommended for NIFTPs, distinguishing NIFTPs from papillary thyroid carcinomas in preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology became one of the major concerns. This review will provide comprehensive overview of updates on diagnostic criteria, actual incidence and preoperative cytologic diagnoses of NIFTP, and its impact on the ROM in TBSRTC.
Newsletter
What’s new in soft tissue and bone pathology 2022–updates from the WHO classification 5th edition
Erica Y. Kao, Jose G. Mantilla
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):385-386.   Published online November 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.18
  • 768 View
  • 104 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The 2020 release of the WHO Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumors, 5th edition, contains several changes driven by new knowledge in the field. These include reclassification of some entities, refinement of risk classification systems, and the inclusion of novel disease processes, many of which are driven by recurrent gene fusions. The most notable changes are described here.
Review
Standardization of the pathologic diagnosis of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms
Dong-Wook Kang, Baek-hui Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Jihun Kim, Hee Jin Chang, Mee Soo Chang, Jin-Hee Sohn, Mee-Yon Cho, So-Young Jin, Hee Kyung Chang, Hye Seung Han, Jung Yeon Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Do Youn Park, Ha Young Park, So Jeong Lee, Wonae Lee, Hye Seung Lee, Yoo Na Kang, Younghee Choi
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(4):247-264.   Published online July 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.05.28
  • 6,278 View
  • 510 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Although the understanding of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (AMNs) and their relationship with disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease have advanced, the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of AMNs are still confusing for pathologists and clinicians. The Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists (GPSG-KSP) proposed a multicenter study and held a workshop for the “Standardization of the Pathologic Diagnosis of the Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm” to overcome the controversy and potential conflicts. The present article is focused on the diagnostic criteria, terminologies, tumor grading, pathologic staging, biologic behavior, treatment, and prognosis of AMNs and disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease. In addition, GPSG-KSP proposes a checklist of standard data elements of appendiceal epithelial neoplasms to standardize pathologic diagnosis. We hope the present article will provide pathologists with updated knowledge on how to handle and diagnose AMNs and disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Delivery of an Incidental Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm
    Madison Bowles, Jessica Y Ng, Hajir Nabi
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unearthing novel fusions as therapeutic targets in solid tumors using targeted RNA sequencing
    Sungbin An, Hyun Hee Koh, Eun Sol Chang, Juyoung Choi, Ji-Young Song, Mi-Sook Lee, Yoon-La Choi
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Usefulness of BRAF VE1 immunohistochemistry in non–small cell lung cancers: a multi-institutional study by 15 pathologists in Korea
Sunhee Chang, Yoon-La Choi, Hyo Sup Shim, Geon Kook Lee, Seung Yeon Ha
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):334-341.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.22
  • 978 View
  • 67 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an approved test to select patients for BRAF V600E targeted therapy in Korea. However, the high cost, long turnaround times, and the need for sophisticated equipment and skilled personnel limit the use of NGS in daily practice. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a rapid and relatively inexpensive assay available in most laboratories. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the usefulness of BRAF VE1 IHC in terms of predictive value and interobserver agreement in non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs).
Methods
A total of 30 cases with known BRAF mutation status were selected, including 20 cases of lung adenocarcinomas, six cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas, and four cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas. IHC for BRAF V600E was carried out using the VE1 antibody. Fifteen pathologists independently scored both the staining intensity and the percentage of tumor cell staining on whole slide images.
Results
In the lung adenocarcinoma subset, interobserver agreement for the percentage of tumor cell staining and staining intensity was good (percentage of tumor cell staining, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.869; staining intensity, kappa = 0.849). The interobserver agreement for the interpretation using the cutoff of 40% was almost perfect in the entire study group and the lung adenocarcinoma subset (kappa = 0.815). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of BRAF VE1 IHC were 80.0%, 90.0%, 88.9%, and 81.8%, respectively.
Conclusions
BRAF VE1 IHC could be a screening test for the detection of BRAF V600E mutation in NSCLC. However, further studies are needed to optimize the protocol and to establish and validate interpretation criteria for BRAF VE1 IHC.
Case Report
Metallic implant-associated lymphoma: ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with total knee replacement arthroplasty
Jai-Hyang Go
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):75-78.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.30
  • 519 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Metallic implant-associated lymphomas are extremely rare. Only seven cases have been reported in association with knee joint arthroplasty, and all tumors were large B-cell lymphomas. This report is the first case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma occurring after total knee replacement arthroplasty. An 80‑year‑old female patient was admitted because of right knee pain for 2 years. She had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty 10 years prior. Computed tomography showed an irregular osteolytic lesion in the right lateral femoral condyle, adjacent to the metallic prosthesis. Histologic findings reveal sheets of anaplastic tumor cells that were positive for CD2, CD4, CD5, CD43, and CD30 but negative for CD3, CD20, CD15, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization was negative. Analysis of T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangement studies using BIOMED-2–based multiplex polymerase chain reaction confirmed monoclonal T cell proliferation. The woman was finally diagnosed with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Reviews
A standardized pathology report for gastric cancer: 2nd edition
Young Soo Park, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Baek-hui Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Dong-Wook Kang, Mi-Jin Gu, Ok Ran Shin, Younghee Choi, Wonae Lee, Hyunki Kim, In Hye Song, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Guhyun Kang, Do Youn Park, So-Young Jin, Joon Mee Kim, Yoon Jung Choi, Hee Kyung Chang, Soomin Ahn, Mee Soo Chang, Song-Hee Han, Yoonjin Kwak, An Na Seo, Sung Hak Lee, Mee-Yon Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):1-27.   Published online January 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.23
  • 489 View
  • 122 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The first edition of ‘A Standardized Pathology Report for Gastric Cancer’ was initiated by the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists and published 17 years ago. Since then, significant advances have been made in the pathologic diagnosis, molecular genetics, and management of gastric cancer (GC). To reflect those changes, a committee for publishing a second edition of the report was formed within the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. This second edition consists of two parts: standard data elements and conditional data elements. The standard data elements contain the basic pathologic findings and items necessary to predict the prognosis of GC patients, and they are adequate for routine surgical pathology service. Other diagnostic and prognostic factors relevant to adjuvant therapy, including molecular biomarkers, are classified as conditional data elements to allow each pathologist to selectively choose items appropriate to the environment in their institution. We trust that the standardized pathology report will be helpful for GC diagnosis and facilitate large-scale multidisciplinary collaborative studies.
Inflammatory bowel disease–associated intestinal fibrosis
Ji Min Park, Jeongseok Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Sung Uk Bae, Hye Won Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):60-66.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.02
  • 489 View
  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Fibrosis is characterized by a proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive extracellular matrix following chronic inflammation, and this replacement of organ tissue with fibrotic tissue causes a loss of function. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and intestinal fibrosis is common in IBD patients, resulting in several complications that require surgery, such as a stricture or penetration. This review describes the pathogenesis and various factors involved in intestinal fibrosis in IBD, including cytokines, growth factors, epithelial-mesenchymal and endothelial-mesenchymal transitions, and gut microbiota. Furthermore, histopathologic findings and scoring systems used for stenosis in IBD are discussed, and differences in the fibrosis patterns of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are compared. Biomarkers and therapeutic agents targeting intestinal fibrosis are briefly mentioned at the end.
Single-cell and spatial sequencing application in pathology
Yoon-Seob Kim, Jinyong Choi, Sug Hyung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):43-51.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.12
  • 461 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traditionally, diagnostic pathology uses histology representing structural alterations in a disease’s cells and tissues. In many cases, however, it is supplemented by other morphology-based methods such as immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is one of the strategies that may help tackle the heterogeneous cells in a disease, but it does not usually provide histologic information. Spatial sequencing is designed to assign cell types, subtypes, or states according to the mRNA expression on a histological section by RNA sequencing. It can provide mRNA expressions not only of diseased cells, such as cancer cells but also of stromal cells, such as immune cells, fibroblasts, and vascular cells. In this review, we studied current methods of spatial transcriptome sequencing based on their technical backgrounds, tissue preparation, and analytic procedures. With the pathology examples, useful recommendations for pathologists who are just getting started to use spatial sequencing analysis in research are provided here. In addition, leveraging spatial sequencing by integration with scRNA-seq is reviewed. With the advantages of simultaneous histologic and single-cell information, spatial sequencing may give a molecular basis for pathological diagnosis, improve our understanding of diseases, and have potential clinical applications in prognostics and diagnostic pathology.
Newsletter
What’s new in kidney tumor pathology 2022: WHO 5th edition updates
Maria Tretiakova
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):383-384.   Published online September 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.16
  • 1,332 View
  • 266 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The 5th edition WHO Classification of Urinary and Male Genital Tumours (2022) introduces significant changes relevant to daily practice, especially in the completely restructured renal cell tumor chapters. Herein we highlight the most important diagnostic updates of known kidney tumor types, new and molecularly defined entities and emerging/provisional entities.
Review
The application of high-throughput proteomics in cytopathology
Ilias P. Nikas, Han Suk Ryu
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):309-318.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.30
  • 930 View
  • 78 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
High-throughput genomics and transcriptomics are often applied in routine pathology practice to facilitate cancer diagnosis, assess prognosis, and predict response to therapy. However, the proteins rather than nucleic acids are the functional molecules defining the cellular phenotype in health and disease, whereas genomic profiling cannot evaluate processes such as the RNA splicing or posttranslational modifications and gene expression does not necessarily correlate with protein expression. Proteomic applications have recently advanced, overcoming the issue of low depth, inconsistency, and suboptimal accuracy, also enabling the use of minimal patient-derived specimens. This review aims to present the recent evidence regarding the use of high-throughput proteomics in both exfoliative and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Most studies used mass spectrometry, as this is associated with high depth, sensitivity, and specificity, and aimed to complement the traditional cytomorphologic diagnosis, in addition to identify novel cancer biomarkers. Examples of diagnostic dilemmas subjected to proteomic analysis included the evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules or prediction of lymph node metastasis from thyroid cancer, also the differentiation between benign and malignant serous effusions, pancreatic cancer from autoimmune pancreatitis, non-neoplastic from malignant biliary strictures, and benign from malignant salivary gland tumors. A few cancer biomarkers—related to diverse cancers involving the breast, thyroid, bladder, lung, serous cavities, salivary glands, and bone marrow—were also discovered. Notably, residual liquid-based cytology samples were suitable for satisfactory and reproducible proteomic analysis. Proteomics could become another routine pathology platform in the near future, potentially by using validated multi-omics protocols.
Original Article
Automated immunohistochemical assessment ability to evaluate estrogen and progesterone receptor status compared with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in breast carcinoma patients
Taesung Jeon, Aeree Kim, Chungyeul Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):33-42.   Published online December 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.09.29
  • 4,555 View
  • 139 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to investigate the capability of an automated immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of hormonal receptor status in breast cancer patients compared to a well-validated quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method.
Methods
This study included 93 invasive breast carcinoma cases that had both standard IHC assay and Oncotype Dx assay results. The same paraffin blocks on which Oncotype Dx assay had been performed were selected. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) receptor status were evaluated through IHC stains using SP1 monoclonal antibody for ER, and 1E2 monoclonal antibody for PR. All ER and PR immunostained slides were scanned, and invasive tumor areas were marked. Using the QuantCenter image analyzer provided by 3DHISTECH, IHC staining of hormone receptors was measured and converted to histochemical scores (H scores). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between Oncotype Dx hormone receptor scores and H scores, and between Oncotype Dx scores and Allred scores.
Results
H scores measured by an automated imaging system showed high concordance with RT-qPCR scores. ER concordance was 98.9% (92/93), and PR concordance was 91.4% (85/93). The correlation magnitude between automated H scores and RT-qPCR scores was high and comparable to those of Allred scores (for ER, 0.51 vs. 0.37 [p=.121], for PR, 0.70 vs. 0.72 [p=.39]).
Conclusions
Automated H scores showed a high concordance with quantitative mRNA expression levels measured by RT-qPCR.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Marker assessments in ER‐ positive breast cancers: old markers, new applications?
    Joshua J X Li, Gary M Tse
    Histopathology.2023; 82(2): 218.     CrossRef
  • The Story of the Magee Equations: The Ultimate in Applied Immunohistochemistry
    Rohit Bhargava, David J. Dabbs
    Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dose-Dependent Relationship between Protection of Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Injury and Hyperammonemia and Concentration of Lactobacillus salivarius Li01 in Mice
    Pengcheng Lou, Yangfan Shen, Aoxiang Zhuge, Longxian Lv, Xueling Zhu, Yin Yuan, Liya Yang, Kaicen Wang, Bo Li, Lanjuan Li, Joanna B. Goldberg
    Microbiology Spectrum.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Newsletter
What’s new in gynecologic pathology 2021: ovary and fallopian tube
Gulisa Turashvili, Ricardo Lastra
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(5):366-367.   Published online September 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.07.28
  • 3,187 View
  • 168 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Female Genital Tumors was published in 2020. Although the classification of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms is largely unchanged from the prior (4th) edition, this newsletter compiles the most important refinements in these organ sites, including serous and non-serous epithelial tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • MR Imaging of Epithelial Ovarian Neoplasms Part II
    Limin Xu, Susanna I. Lee, Aoife Kilcoyne
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America.2023; 31(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • Current Trends on Bioengineering Approaches for Ovarian Microenvironment Reconstruction
    Gustavo Henrique Doná Rodrigues Almeida, Rebeca Piatniczka Iglesia, Jaqueline de Carvalho Rinaldi, Mikaelly Kiemy Murai, Celso Vitor Alves Queiroz Calomeno, Leandro Norberto da Silva Junior, Bianca de Oliveira Horvath-Pereira, Letícia Beatriz Mazo Pinho,
    Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review
Follicular lymphoma: updates for pathologists
Mahsa Khanlari, Jennifer R. Chapman
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(1):1-15.   Published online December 27, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.09.29
  • 4,007 View
  • 336 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent B-cell lymphoma and originates from germinal center B-cells (centrocytes and centroblasts) of the lymphoid follicle. Tumorigenesis is believed to initiate early in precursor B-cells in the bone marrow (BM) that acquire the t(14;18)(q32;q21). These cells later migrate to lymph nodes to continue their maturation through the germinal center reaction, at which time they acquire additional genetic and epigeneticabnormalities that promote lymphomagenesis. FLs are heterogeneous in terms of their clinicopathologic features. Most FLs are indolent and clinically characterized by peripheral lymphadenopathy with involvement of the spleen, BM, and peripheral blood in a substantial subset of patients, sometimes accompanied by constitutional symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. Diagnosis is established by the histopathologic identification of a B-cell proliferation usually distributed in an at least partially follicular pattern, typically, but not always, in a lymph node biopsy. The B-cell proliferation is biologically of germinal center cell origin, thus shows an expression of germinal center-associated antigens as detected by immunophenotyping. Although many cases of FLs are typical and histopathologic features are straightforward, the biologic and histopathologic variability of FL is wide, and an accurate diagnosis of FL over this disease spectrum requires knowledge of morphologic variants that can mimic other lymphomas, and rarely non-hematologic malignancies, clinically unique variants, and pitfalls in the interpretation of ancillary studies. The overall survival for most patients is prolonged, but relapses are frequent. The treatment landscape in FL now includes the application of immunotherapy and targeted therapy in addition to chemotherapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A review of the totality of evidence in the development of ABP 798, a rituximab biosimilar
    Patrick Cobb, Dietger Niederwieser, Stanley Cohen, Caroline Hamm, Gerd Burmester, Neungseon Seo, Sonya G Lehto, Vladimir Hanes
    Immunotherapy.2022; 14(9): 727.     CrossRef

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine