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Newsletter
What’s new in soft tissue and bone pathology 2022–updates from the WHO classification 5th edition
Erica Y. Kao, Jose G. Mantilla
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):385-386.   Published online November 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.18
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The 2020 release of the WHO Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumors, 5th edition, contains several changes driven by new knowledge in the field. These include reclassification of some entities, refinement of risk classification systems, and the inclusion of novel disease processes, many of which are driven by recurrent gene fusions. The most notable changes are described here.
Original Article
Development of quality assurance program for digital pathology by the Korean Society of Pathologists
Yosep Chong, Jeong Mo Bae, Dong Wook Kang, Gwangil Kim, Hye Seung Han
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):370-382.   Published online November 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.30
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Digital pathology (DP) using whole slide imaging is a recently emerging game changer technology that can fundamentally change the way of working in pathology. The Digital Pathology Study Group (DPSG) of the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) published a consensus report on the recommendations for pathologic practice using DP. Accordingly, the need for the development and implementation of a quality assurance program (QAP) for DP has been raised.
Methods
To provide a standard baseline reference for internal and external QAP for DP, the members of the Committee of Quality Assurance of the KSP developed a checklist for the Redbook and a QAP trial for DP based on the prior DPSG consensus report. Four leading institutes participated in the QAP trial in the first year, and we gathered feedback from these institutes afterwards.
Results
The newly developed checklists of QAP for DP contain 39 items (216 score): eight items for quality control of DP systems; three for DP personnel; nine for hardware and software requirements for DP systems; 15 for validation, operation, and management of DP systems; and four for data security and personal information protection. Most participants in the QAP trial replied that continuous education on unfamiliar terminology and more practical experience is demanding.
Conclusions
The QAP for DP is essential for the safe implementation of DP in pathologic practice. Each laboratory should prepare an institutional QAP according to this checklist, and consecutive revision of the checklist with feedback from the QAP trial for DP needs to follow.
Reviews
Biomarker testing of cytology specimens in personalized medicine for lung cancer patients
Hyojin Kim, Jin-Haeng Chung
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):326-333.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.17
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Every patient with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be tested for targetable driver mutations and gene arrangements that may open avenues for targeted therapy. As most patients with NSCLC in the advanced stage of the disease are not candidates for surgery, these tests have to be performed on small biopsies or cytology samples. A growing number of other genetic changes with targetable mutations may be treatable in the near future. To identify patients who might benefit from novel targeted therapy, relevant markers should be tested in an appropriate context. In addition, immunotherapy of lung cancer is guided by the status of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in tumor cells. The variety and versatility of cytological specimen preparations offer significant advantages for molecular testing; however, they frequently remain underused. Therefore, evaluating the utility and adequacy of cytologic specimens is important, not only from a lung cancer diagnosis, but also for the large number of ancillary studies that are necessary to provide appropriate clinical management. A large proportion of lung cancers is diagnosed by aspiration or exfoliative cytology specimens; thus, optimizing strategies to triage and best use the tissue for diagnosis and biomarker studies forms a critical component of lung cancer management. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of using cytologic specimens for biomarker testing of lung cancer and the role of cytopathology in the molecular era.
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features: its updated diagnostic criteria, preoperative cytologic diagnoses and impact on the risk of malignancy
Hee Young Na, So Yeon Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):319-325.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Due to the extremely indolent behavior, a subset of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas has been classified as “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)” since 2016 and is no longer considered carcinoma. Since the introduction of this new terminology, changes and refinements have been made in diagnostic criteria. Initially, the incidence of NIFTP was estimated substantial. However, the reported incidence of NIFTP varies greatly among studies and regions, with higher incidence in North American and European countries than in Asian countries. Thus, the changes in the risk of malignancy (ROM) in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) differ inevitably among regions. Because more conservative surgery is recommended for NIFTPs, distinguishing NIFTPs from papillary thyroid carcinomas in preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology became one of the major concerns. This review will provide comprehensive overview of updates on diagnostic criteria, actual incidence and preoperative cytologic diagnoses of NIFTP, and its impact on the ROM in TBSRTC.
Original Article
Diagnostic distribution and pitfalls of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology: a 25-year single-center study
Jung-A Sung, Ilias P. Nikas, Haeryoung Kim, Han Suk Ryu, Cheol Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):354-360.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.05
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Detection of glandular abnormalities in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests is challenging. This study aimed to review our institute’s experience interpreting such abnormalities, assess cytohistologic concordance, and identify cytomorphologic features associated with malignancy in follow-up histology.
Methods
Patients with cytologically-detected glandular lesions identified in our pathology records from 1995 to 2020 were included in this study.
Results
Of the 683,197 Pap tests performed, 985 (0.144%) exhibited glandular abnormalities, 657 of which had tissue follow-up available. One hundred eighty-eight cases were cytologically interpreted as adenocarcinoma and histologically diagnosed as malignant tumors of various origins. There were 213 cases reported as atypical glandular cells (AGC) and nine cases as adenocarcinoma in cytology, yet they were found to be benign in follow-up histology. In addition, 48 cases diagnosed with AGC and six with adenocarcinoma cytology were found to have cervical squamous lesions in follow-up histology, including four squamous cell carcinomas. Among the cytomorphological features examined, nuclear membrane irregularity, three-dimensional clusters, single-cell pattern, and presence of mitoses were associated with malignant histology in follow-up.
Conclusions
This study showed our institute’s experience detecting glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology over a 25-year period, revealing the difficulty of this task. Nonetheless, the present study indicates that several cytological findings such as membrane irregularity, three-dimensional clusters, single-cell pattern, and evidence of proliferation could help distinguishing malignancy from a benign lesion.
Review
The application of high-throughput proteomics in cytopathology
Ilias P. Nikas, Han Suk Ryu
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):309-318.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.30
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AbstractAbstract PDF
High-throughput genomics and transcriptomics are often applied in routine pathology practice to facilitate cancer diagnosis, assess prognosis, and predict response to therapy. However, the proteins rather than nucleic acids are the functional molecules defining the cellular phenotype in health and disease, whereas genomic profiling cannot evaluate processes such as the RNA splicing or posttranslational modifications and gene expression does not necessarily correlate with protein expression. Proteomic applications have recently advanced, overcoming the issue of low depth, inconsistency, and suboptimal accuracy, also enabling the use of minimal patient-derived specimens. This review aims to present the recent evidence regarding the use of high-throughput proteomics in both exfoliative and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Most studies used mass spectrometry, as this is associated with high depth, sensitivity, and specificity, and aimed to complement the traditional cytomorphologic diagnosis, in addition to identify novel cancer biomarkers. Examples of diagnostic dilemmas subjected to proteomic analysis included the evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules or prediction of lymph node metastasis from thyroid cancer, also the differentiation between benign and malignant serous effusions, pancreatic cancer from autoimmune pancreatitis, non-neoplastic from malignant biliary strictures, and benign from malignant salivary gland tumors. A few cancer biomarkers—related to diverse cancers involving the breast, thyroid, bladder, lung, serous cavities, salivary glands, and bone marrow—were also discovered. Notably, residual liquid-based cytology samples were suitable for satisfactory and reproducible proteomic analysis. Proteomics could become another routine pathology platform in the near future, potentially by using validated multi-omics protocols.
Original Articles
Current status of cytopathology practice in Korea: impact of the coronavirus pandemic on cytopathology practice
Soon Auck Hong, Haeyoen Jung, Sung Sun Kim, Min-Sun Jin, Jung-Soo Pyo, Ji Yun Jeong, Younghee Choi, Gyungyub Gong, Yosep Chong
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):361-369.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.21
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The Continuous Quality Improvement program for cytopathology in 2020 was completed during the coronavirus pandemic. In this study, we report the result of the quality improvement program.
Methods
Data related to cytopathology practice from each institute were collected and processed at the web-based portal. The proficiency test was conducted using glass slides and whole-slide images (WSIs). Evaluation of the adequacy of gynecology (GYN) slides from each institution and submission of case glass slides and WSIs for the next quality improvement program were performed.
Results
A total of 214 institutions participated in the annual cytopathology survey in 2020. The number of entire cytopathology specimens was 8,220,650, a reduction of 19.0% from the 10,111,755 specimens evaluated in 2019. Notably, the number of respiratory cytopathology specimens, including sputum and bronchial washing/ brushing significantly decreased by 86.9% from 2019, which could be attributed to the global pandemic of coronavirus disease. The ratio of cases with atypical squamous cells to squamous intraepithelial lesions was 4.10. All participating institutions passed the proficiency test and the evaluation of adequacy of GYN slides.
Conclusions
Through the Continuous Quality Improvement program, the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, manifesting with a reduction in the number of cytologic examinations, especially in respiratory-related specimen has been identified. The Continuous Quality Improvement Program of the Korean Society for Cytopathology can serve as the gold standard to evaluate the current status of cytopathology practice in Korea.
A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of primary and secondary breast angiosarcoma
Evi Abada, Hyejeong Jang, Seongho Kim, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):342-353.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.31
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
We aimed to study the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) (CD117, c-Myc, and p53) characteristics, and overall survival of primary and secondary breast angiosarcoma (BAS).
Methods
This was a retrospective study of BAS cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2020 at our institution. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed for tumor morphology, margin status, and lymph node metastasis. CD117, p53, D2-40, CD31, and c-Myc IHC stains were performed on 11 viable tissue blocks. Additional clinical information was obtained from the electronic medical records.
Results
Seventeen patients with BAS were identified. Of these, five (29%) were primary and 12 (71%) were secondary BAS, respectively. The median age at diagnosis for primary BAS was 36 years. The median age at diagnosis for secondary BAS was 67 years. The median time to secondary BAS development following radiotherapy was 6.5 years (range, 2 to 12 years). There was no significant difference between primary and secondary BAS in several histopathologic parameters examined, including histologic grade, necrosis, mitotic count, lymph node metastasis, and positive tumor margins. There was also no difference in CD117, p53, D2-40, CD31, and c-Myc expression by IHC between primary and secondary BAS. During a median followup of 21 months, primary BAS had two (40%) reported deaths and secondary BAS had three (25%) reported deaths. However, this difference in survival between both groups was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 3.28; p = .450).
Conclusions
BAS is a rare and aggressive disease. No histologic, IHC (CD117, c-Myc, and p53), or survival differences were identified between primary and secondary BAS in this study.
Usefulness of BRAF VE1 immunohistochemistry in non–small cell lung cancers: a multi-institutional study by 15 pathologists in Korea
Sunhee Chang, Yoon-La Choi, Hyo Sup Shim, Geon Kook Lee, Seung Yeon Ha
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):334-341.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.22
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an approved test to select patients for BRAF V600E targeted therapy in Korea. However, the high cost, long turnaround times, and the need for sophisticated equipment and skilled personnel limit the use of NGS in daily practice. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a rapid and relatively inexpensive assay available in most laboratories. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the usefulness of BRAF VE1 IHC in terms of predictive value and interobserver agreement in non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs).
Methods
A total of 30 cases with known BRAF mutation status were selected, including 20 cases of lung adenocarcinomas, six cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas, and four cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas. IHC for BRAF V600E was carried out using the VE1 antibody. Fifteen pathologists independently scored both the staining intensity and the percentage of tumor cell staining on whole slide images.
Results
In the lung adenocarcinoma subset, interobserver agreement for the percentage of tumor cell staining and staining intensity was good (percentage of tumor cell staining, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.869; staining intensity, kappa = 0.849). The interobserver agreement for the interpretation using the cutoff of 40% was almost perfect in the entire study group and the lung adenocarcinoma subset (kappa = 0.815). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of BRAF VE1 IHC were 80.0%, 90.0%, 88.9%, and 81.8%, respectively.
Conclusions
BRAF VE1 IHC could be a screening test for the detection of BRAF V600E mutation in NSCLC. However, further studies are needed to optimize the protocol and to establish and validate interpretation criteria for BRAF VE1 IHC.
Case Study
Papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas coexisting in the same lobe, first suspected based on fine-needle aspiration cytology: a case report
Hyun Hee Koh, Young Lyun Oh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):301-308.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.03
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Because different types of thyroid malignancies have distinct embryological origins, coexisting tumors are rarely observed. We describe a coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) first suspected by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 57-year-old female presented with an irregular mass in the right thyroid lobe. The cytopathologic findings of fine-needle aspiration showed two components: a papillary-like arrangement consisting of cells with pale enlarged nuclei indicative of PTC and loose clusters comprised of oval cells with granular chromatin indicative of MTC. The diagnosis of a coexisting PTC and MTC was initially confirmed by calcitonin immunocytochemistry and later after total thyroidectomy. Although some surgical case reports of PTC and MTC coexisting in either the same or different lobes have been documented, a case suspected by FNAC before the surgery has rarely been reported. Because appropriate treatment and prognosis of PTC and MTC are different, cytopathologists should be aware of this rare entity.
Original Articles
Evaluation of the characteristics of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections identified using the BD Onclarity HPV assay and comparison with those of single HPV infection
Jinhee Kim, Moonsik Kim, Ji Young Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):289-293.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.08.02
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer and associated precursor lesions. Multiple HPV genotype infections have been reported. However, their clinicopathological characteristics still remain elusive.
Methods
For this study, 814 consecutive patients who had undergone colposcopy and HPV genotyping test using BD Onclarity HPV assay were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathological parameters of multiple HPV infections were compared with those of single HPV infection.
Results
Multiple HPV infections were found in 110 out of 814 cases (13.5%). Multiple HPV infections were associated with a significantly higher incidence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) compared with single HPV infection. Other high-risk HPV genotypes, in addition to HPV 16, were found more frequently in the multiple HPV infections group; these included HPV 51, 52, 33/58, 56/59/66, and 35/39/68. No specific coinfection pattern was not identified. Additionally, the number of HPV genotypes in multiple HPV infections was not associated with the progression to HSIL or squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusions
Multiple HPV infections have distinct clinicopathological characteristics (compared with single HPV infection). As their biological behavior is uncertain, close and frequent follow-up is warranted.
Prognostic significance of BLK expression in R-CHOP treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Soyeon Choi, Yoo Jin Lee, Yunsuk Choi, Misung Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Sukjoong Oh, Seoung Wan Chae, Hee Jeong Cha, Jae-Cheol Jo
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):281-288.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.26
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of B-cell lymphocyte kinase (BLK) expression for survival outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with R-CHOP.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 89 patients from two tertiary referral hospitals. The expression of BLK, SYK, and CDK1 were evaluated in a semiquantitative method using an H-score, and the proportions of BCL2 and C-MYC were evaluated.
Results
A total of 89 patients received R-CHOP chemotherapy as a first-line chemotherapy. The expression rates of BLK in tumor cells was 39.2% (n = 34). BLK expression status was not significantly associated with clinical variables; however, BLK expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with the expression of both C-MYC and BCL2 (p = .003). With a median follow-up of 60.4 months, patients with BLK expression had significantly lower 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival rates (49.8% and 60.9%, respectively) than patients without BLK expression (77.3% and 86.7%, respectively). In multivariate analysis for PFS, BLK positivity was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 2.208; p = .040).
Conclusions
Here, we describe the clinicopathological features and survival outcome according to expression of BLK in DLBCL. Approximately 39% of DLBCL patients showed BLK positivity, which was associated as a predictive marker for poor prognosis in patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy.
Case Study
Heterotopic mesenteric ossification: a report of two cases
Hisham F. Bahmad, Olga Lopez, Tyson Sutherland, Marisa Vinas, Kfir Ben-David, Lydia Howard, Robert Poppiti, Sarah Alghamdi
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):294-300.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.23
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Heterotopic mesenteric ossification (HMO) is abnormal bone formation in tissues which usually do not undergo ossification. There are approximately 75 cases reported worldwide. We present two cases of HMO. The first case is that of a 39-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and a computerized tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an apple core lesion resulting in small bowel obstruction. The second case is that of a 36-year-old woman who presented 2 months after undergoing robotic gastric sleeve resection complaining of weakness and emesis. An esophagogram revealed kinking at the distal esophagus. Surgical resection was performed in both, yielding the diagnosis of HMO. There are various theories as to the pathophysiology of HMO, but no clearly defined mechanism has been established. Management should be conservative whenever possible to prevent further ossification with subsequent surgical intervention.
Original Articles
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) in the differential diagnosis of osteogenic and non-osteogenic bone and soft tissue tumors
Sharon Milton, Anne Jennifer Prabhu, V. T. K. Titus, Rikki John, Selvamani Backianathan, Vrisha Madhuri
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):270-280.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.11
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OSA) depends on clinicopathological and radiological correlation. A biopsy is considered the gold standard for OSA diagnosis. However, since OSA is a great histological mimicker, diagnostic challenges exist. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) can serve as an adjunct for the histological diagnosis of OSA. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) was recently described as a reliable adjunct immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of OSA.
Methods
We investigated the IHC expression of SATB2 in 95 OSA and 100 non-osteogenic bone and soft tissue tumors using a monoclonal antibody (clone EPNCIR30A). The diagnostic utility of SATB2 and correlation with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed.
Results
SATB2 IHC was positive in 88 out of 95 cases (92.6%) of OSA and 50 out of 100 cases (50.0%) of primary non-osteogenic bone and soft tissue tumors. Of the 59 bone tumors, 37 cases (62.7%) were positive for SATB2, and of the 41 soft tissue tumors, 13 cases (31.7%) were positive for SATB2. The sensitivity of SATB2 as a diagnostic test was 92.6%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 63.8%, and negative predictive value 87.7%.
Conclusions
Although SATB2 is a useful diagnostic marker for OSA, other clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features should be considered for the interpretation of SATB2.
Cytopathologic features of human papillomavirus–independent, gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma
Min-Kyung Yeo, Go Eun Bae, Dong-Hyun Kim, In-Ock Seong, Kwang-Sun Suh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(5):260-269.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.07.05
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (GEA) is unrelated to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is clinically aggressive compared with HPV-associated usual-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (UEA). The cytological diagnosis falls short of a definitive diagnosis of GEA and is often categorized as atypical glandular cells (AGCs). To improve cytologic recognition, cytological findings of HPV-independent GEA were analyzed and the results compared with HPV-associated UEA.
Methods
Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from eight patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of GEA and 12 control cases of UEA were reviewed. All slides were conventionally prepared and/or liquid-based prepared (ThinPrep) and stained following the Pap method. A mucinous background, architectural, nuclear, and cytoplasmic features were analyzed and compared with UEA.
Results
Preoperative cytologic diagnoses of the eight GEA cases were AGCs, favor neoplastic in three cases, adenocarcinoma in situ in one case, and adenocarcinoma in four cases. Cytologically, monolayered honeycomb-like sheets (p = .002) of atypical endocervical cells with vacuolar granular cytoplasm (p = .001) were extensive in GEA, and three-dimensional clusters (p = .010) were extensive in UEA. Although the differences were not statistically significant, background mucin (p = .058), vesicular nuclei (p = .057), and golden-brown intracytoplasmic mucin (p = .089) were also discriminatory findings for GEA versus UEA.
Conclusions
Although GEA is difficult to diagnose on cytologic screening, GEA can be recognized based on cytologic features of monolayered honeycomb sheets of atypical endocervical cells with abundant vacuolar cytoplasm and some golden-brown intracytoplasmic mucin. UEA cases are characterized by three-dimensional clusters.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine