| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact Us |  
JPTM > Volume 47(5); 2013 > Article
Choi, Kim, Kim, Kim, Nam, Choi, and Park: Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia of the Chest Wall Misdiagnosed as a Malignancy on Fine Needle Aspiration
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) is an exuberant proliferation of endothelial cells that may occur within the lumen of a pre-existing vessel or vascular malformation.1 Although IPEH is regarded as a non-neoplastic reactive process, misdiagnoses as a malignancy have been reported, particularly based on fine needle aspiration (FNA) findings.2-4 We report a case of IPEH on the chest wall that was initially misdiagnosed as an adenocarcinoma on FNA.

CASE REPORT

A 75-year-old male underwent a subtotal gastrectomy at 62 years of age. He was diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma confined to the gastric mucosa. He remained in good health until 3 years ago, at which time he noticed a 2 cm asymptomatic mass on the chest wall. The mass was situated 10 cm apart from the previous surgical scar. One week before hospital admission, he experienced pain at the site of the mass and was referred for further evaluation.
The clinical condition of the patient was good. Physical examination revealed a firm, smooth, round mass on the anterior chest wall. The size of the mass had not changed since initial presentation. The mass was initially presumed to be a lipoma or epidermal inclusion cyst on physical palpation. However FNA was necessary to rule out a metastatic adenocarcinoma originating from the stomach.
The FNA cytology showed low cellular smears containing a few cohesive sheets of polygonal pleomorphic cells with vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, abundant dense cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. Scattered individual polygonal cells were also present in a hemorrhagic background (Fig. 1). Some fibrins were intermingled, and some of the cells showed long cytoplasmic processes suggestive of spindling. Pleomorphic polygonal cells were arranged in alveolar or glandular patterns that were suspected to be metastatic adenocarcinoma.
The pathologic findings of the excised mass showed a well-demarcated vascular lesion within the skeletal muscle associated with a hematoma. There was an anastomosing papillary core lined by plump endothelial cells. The papillae contained fibrin-like materials and the endothelial cells were pleomorphic with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli (Fig. 2). Mitotic figures were not observed. The overall cellular features were similar to those observed in the aspirate smears. The cells showed diffuse strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen, and were negative for cytokeratin, confirming the diagnosis of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia.

DISCUSSION

IPEH may be confused with a malignancy based on FNA, particularly when the lesion occurs in uncommon anatomic locations. IPEH is an unusual form of organizing thrombus and frequently occurs within the vessels of the head, neck, and fingers, while it is rarely occurs on the chest wall.1,5 IPEH is characterized by endothelial cell proliferation and fibrous capsulation. And it has been regarded as a reactive process rather than a true neoplasm. Although trauma is believed to be a factor in the development of IPEH, a history of trauma was elicited in only 4% of 314 cases in the literature.6 A history of trauma to the chest wall was not given by the patient in our case.
For this case, the initial diagnosis was drawn from the cytologic features suggesting an adenocarcinoma, such as pleomorphic large polygonal cell sheets, prominent nucleoli, abundant cytoplasm containing cytoplasmic vacuoles, and a history of subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric cancer. However, the cytologic diagnosis was falsely positive compared to the histologic diagnosis. On reviewing the cytologic slides of this case, there was lack of other features to support the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, including absence of tumor necrosis, lack of coarse chromatin with nuclear hyperchromatism, no mitotic figures, and low nuclear: cytoplasm ratio. Although endothelial cells in IPEH resemble neoplastic epithelial cells, careful attention to fibrin materials, vasoformative structures, and hemorrhagic background could be helpful in diagnosing a vascular lesion on FNA.7,8 Furthermore, the tumor size did not change from the initial presentation 3 years prior, and the patient was otherwise doing well.
The cytologic features of IPEH in the published literature show diverse morphologies, leading to frequent diagnostic error.1-3,9,10 IPEH has been misdiagnosed as malignant vascular tumor, embryonal carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and giant cell tumor. Handa et al.10 suggested two types of cell populations that can assist in cytologic diagnosis of IPEH: spindle cells and round cells. The spindle cells in IPEH are scattered or tagged onto a capillary network and have fine granular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and wispy cytoplasm. The round cells in IPEH are present around hyaline cores and have hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Immunocytochemical stains for Factor VIII and CD31 can also added to the cytologic diagnosis of vascular lesion.
In conclusion, the cytologic features of IPEH are not specific, which often result in diagnostic challenges. However, it is important to suspect a vascular lesion when atypical cells are found in a hemorrhagic background. Furthermore, combination of cytologic features with immunocytochemistry will aid in a correct diagnosis of IPEH.

Notes

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

References

1. García-Macías MC, Abad M, Alonso MJ, Flores T, Bullón A. Masson's vegetant intravascular hemangioendothelioma: fine needle aspiration cytology, histology and immunohistochemistry of a case. Acta Cytol 1990; 34: 175–178. PMID: 2108526.
pmid
2. Suh KS, Shin KS, Park IA. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the neck masquerading as malignancy on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 29: 14–17. PMID: 12827709.
crossref pmid
3. Novak JA, Ferguson DJ, Komorowski RA. Fine needle aspiration cytology of papillary endothelial hyperplasia: a case report. Acta Cytol 1999; 43: 663–666. PMID: 10432892.
crossref pmid
4. Jain S, Khurana N, Gulati A. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the palate masquerading as adenoid cystic carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Cytopathology 2012; 23: 198–200. PMID: 21385237.
crossref pmid
5. Duarte IG, Chang HJ, Kennedy JC, Miller JI Jr. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting as a chest wall neoplasm. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 67: 238–240. PMID: 10086561.
crossref pmid
6. Pins MR, Rosenthal DI, Springfield DS, Rosenberg AE. Florid extravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's pseudoangiosarcoma) presenting as a soft-tissue sarcoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1993; 117: 259–263. PMID: 8442671.
pmid
7. Tong GX, Hamele-Bena D, Borczuk A, Monaco S, Khosh MM, Greenebaum E. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the oral cavity: report of one case and review of literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 218–223. PMID: 16470861.
crossref pmid
8. Gagner JP, Yim JH, Yang GC. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of epithelioid angiosarcoma: a diagnostic dilemma. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 429–433. PMID: 16299742.
crossref pmid
9. Kovalovsky A, Reynders A, Khurana K. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia diagnosed by fine needle aspiration: report of a case and cytology literature review. J Cytol 2013; 30: 42–45. PMID: 23661940.
crossref pmid pmc
10. Handa U, Khurana U, Singhal N, Punia RP, Mohan H. Cytologic diagnosis of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: a report of two cases and review of cytologic literature. Acta Cytol 2012; 56: 199–203. PMID: 22378085.
crossref pmid
Fig. 1
(A) Fine needle aspiration shows several cohesive sheets with a papillary configuration and fibrin materials in a hemorrhagic background. (B) The sheets are composed of pleomorphic polygonal cells with abundant cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vacuole (A, B, Papanicolaou stain).
kjpathol-47-499-g001.jpg
Fig. 2
(A) The excised mass shows a hematoma and anastomosing papillary vascular structures covered by a thick capsule. (B) High magnification of the papillary structures reveals proliferation of endothelial cells with fibrin-like material.
kjpathol-47-499-g002.jpg