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The Korean Journal of Pathology 2005;39(6): 391-400.
Expression of p34(cdc2), p27(Kip1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 in Human Breast Cancers.
Dong Hoon Kim, Chan Kum Park, Ho Jung Lee, Won Mi Lee, Eun Kyung Kim, Jong Eun Joo
1Department of Pathology, Nowon Eulji Hospital, Korea. idavidkim@yahoo.co.kr
2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.
BACKGROUND: Cell cycle progression is governed by cell cycle regulators and inhibitors such as the cyclin dependent kinases (CDK), p27(Kip1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53. The purpose of this study was to correlate expressions of p34(cdc2), p27(Kip1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 with the various clinicopathologic prognostic parameters of human breast cancers. METHODS: The paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 102 patients with human breast carcinomas were examined by performing immunohistochemical staining. The primary antibodies used for immunohistochemical staining were mouse monoclonal antibody to human p34(cdc2), p27(Kip1), p21(WAF1/Cip1), p53, ER and PR. RESULTS: The expression rates of p34(cdc2), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 were 29.3%, 40.2% and 49.1% in breast carcinomas, respectively. In normal breast tissues, p34(cdc2), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 were not expressed. The p34(cdc2) was expressed in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. The expression rate of p27(Kip1) was 29.3% in breast carcinomas and 100% in normal breast tissues, so the loss of p27(Kip1) expression in breast cancer was noted. The high expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) in neoplastic cells was associated with the p53 expression (p=0.03). The expression of p27(Kip1) was correlated with that of the progesterone receptor (PR) (p=0.04) and the expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) was correlated with that of positivity for estrogen receptor (ER) (p=0.04) and PR (p=0.04). No correlation was demonstrated between the mean patient survival and the expression rate of p34(cdc2), p27(Kip1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of the normal cell growth cycle by the abnormal expression of cyclin dependent kinases and their inhibitors and the steroid hormones may play an important role in human breast carcinogenesis. The p53 dependent p21(WAF1/Cip1) pathway, the p27(Kip1) protein loss and the cdc2 overexpression were important in development and progression of human breast cancer.
Key Words: p34(cdc2); p27(Kip1); p21(WAF1/Cip1); p53; Breast cancer