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The Korean Journal of Cytopathology 1996;7(1): 1-11.
Recent Advances in Cancer Diagnosis: On an Overview of Diagnostic Cytopathologic Modalities and Ancillary Techniques.
Kital Kim, Eui Keun
1Department of Pathology, College of Medicine Seoul National University, Korea.
2Department of Pathology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio, USA.
ABSTRACT
Form the concepts of cellular pathology and of exfoliative cytology, as elucidated by Virchow and Papanicolaou respectively in the late 19th and early 20th century, have evolved the primary methods for the diagnosis of cancer today. From Papanicolaou's concept of exfoliative cytology developed fine needle aspiration biopsy in the early 1960's ; this has become a major diagnostic procedure and has contributed to a significant reduction in open biopsies and, therefore, to medical cost-effectiveness. Immunobiochemical techniques provided us with a supplement to cancer diagnosis in the 1980's. The immunoperoxidase method, using monoclonal antibodies, is applied primarily as an ancillary measure to elucidate the nature of cancers. The evailability of specific monoclonal antibodies has greatly facilitated the identification of cell products or surface markers. For example, antibodies directed against intermediate filaments have proved to be of value in determining the histogenesis of poorly differentiated neoplasms. Tumor markers may serve as biochemical indicators of the presence of a neoplasm. They can be detected in plasma and other body fluids. Their concentration can be applied as a diagnostic test, for monitoring the clinical course of known cancer, and as a screening measure to detect certain cancers in a population at risk. Flow cytometry is a useful tool for distinguishing several cell characteristics. such as the immunophenotype of leukemia-lymphoma cells, the DNA content of neoplastic cells, and cell proliferation rate. Molecular biologic techniques provided a giant step for the management of cancer patients encompassing diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and therapy. Nucleic acid hybridization techniques are utilized as Southern, Northern, and dot blots and in situ hybridization. Molecular biology and its techniques may bring a bright new horizon for understanding cancer biology and in designing therapy on the basis of gene manipulation
Key Words: Cancer diagnosis; Cytopathologic modalities
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