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doi: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.08.04    [Epub ahead of print]
Thyroid Cytology in India: Contemporary Review and Meta-analysis
Shipra Agarwal, Deepali Jain
Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Corresponding Author: Deepali Jain ,Tel: +91-9868895112, Email: deepalijain76@gmail.com
Received: July 22, 2017;  Accepted: August 4, 2017.  Published online: October 5, 2017.
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and inter-observer concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors have been discussed in the review.
Key Words: Cytology; Fine-needle aspiration cytology; Thyroid FNA; The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology; Review; Meta-analysis; India
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